Französische Verlage haben ihren ersten Überlegungen Taten folgen lassen und Kontakte zur Regierung geknüpft, um ein Leistungsschutzrecht nach deutschem Vorbild auch in Frankreich auf den Weg zu bringen. Die Verlage arbeiten seit dem Frühjahr an dem Projekt. Bisher haben sie hinter den Kulissen um Unterstützung geworben, jetzt treten sie an die Öffentlichkeit. Zuvor hatten sie sich jahrelang um eine einvernehmliche Einigung mit Google bemüht, was aber ergebnislos geblieben war. Hier mit freundlicher Genehmigung des Verlags ein Hintergrundartikel aus der Wirtschaftszeitung Les Echos:
Les éditeurs proposent leur « Lex Google » au gouvernement
Par Anne Feitz
Le projet de proposition de loi porte sur la création d’un droit voisin du droit d’auteur. Objectif : capter une partie de la valeur dégagée grâce aux contenus des journaux.
Est-ce l’initiative qui, enfin, permettra à la presse écrite de toucher une juste rémunération grâce à ses contenus sur Internet ? L’espoir est en tout cas immense. L’association de la presse IPG (d’intérêt politique et général) a adressé en fin de semaine un projet de proposition de loi au gouvernement, portant sur la création d’un « droit voisin » du droit d’auteur, destiné aux organismes de presse. Le projet de loi adopté fin août par le gouvernement allemand, surnommé « Lex Google » car il vise essentiellement le moteur de recherche, a accéléré les travaux dans l’Hexagone. « Nous travaillons sur ce projet depuis le printemps », indique Nathalie Collin, présidente de l’association IPG. Celle-ci est soutenue dans sa démarche par le SPQN (syndicat de la presse quotidienne nationale), le SPQR (Syndicat de la presse quotidienne régionale), et le SEPM (Syndicat des éditeurs de presse magazine).
La loi concernerait tous les éditeurs de presse : quotidiens, magazines, agences, y compris les « pure players » de la presse en ligne. Elle les empêcherait d’interdire la diffusion de leurs contenus par les moteurs de recherche. En contrepartie, ils bénéficieraient d’un droit voisin, qui contraindrait les moteurs à payer une « rémunération équitable » s’ils donnent accès, par un lien, aux contenus de presse « librement accessibles » sur le Net.
Ce type de rémunération équitable existe déjà dans d’autres secteurs : les maisons de disques, par exemple, ne peuvent s’opposer à la diffusion d’une chanson par une radio. Mais les stations versent une rémunération forfaitaire, déterminée par une commission mixte paritaire et gérée par une société de gestion collective, avec l’arbitrage du gouvernement.
Rémunérer les producteurs
L’enjeu est fondamental pour la presse, dont le modèle économique a été bouleversé par Internet. La diffusion des éditions papier décline alors que l’audience de la presse en ligne grimpe. Sans compensation : entre 2000 et 2010, la presse imprimée a perdu 1,2 milliard d’euros de chiffre d’affaires, alors que les recettes de la presse en ligne n’atteignent que 281 millions, selon IPG. « Il ne s’agit pas d’opposer la “vieille presse” au monde du Web, insiste Nathalie Collin. Les éditeurs sont aussi des acteurs Internet : 7 des 10 premiers sites d’information en ligne sont des sites de presse, nos investissements cumulés dans le numérique depuis trois ans atteignent 250 millions d’euros, nous avons recruté plus de 1.000 personnes dans ce domaine… »
Les éditeurs ont longtemps tenté de négocier avec Google pour capter une partie de la valeur créée grâce à leurs contenus. En vain. Une loi le contraindrait, sans que certains éditeurs soient tentés de jouer cavalier seul pour ne pas être déréférencés par le moteur de recherche, qui leur apporte une bonne partie de leur trafic. Le gouvernement accueille en tout cas l’initiative avec intérêt. « Elle correspond à notre préoccupation de voir rémunérés les producteurs français de contenus culturels diffusés sur Internet », confirme un conseiller ministériel.Twittern
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